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Long question

1. Define research. What are the characteristics and significance of the research?

Research is a systematic and objective process of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data to answer a research question or solve a problem. It involves a methodical inquiry into a specific topic using established procedures to acquire knowledge and understanding of the subject matter.

There are several characteristics of research, including:

Systematic approach: Research follows a structured and organized process that involves clearly defined steps to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Objective inquiry: Research is an impartial and unbiased investigation that seeks to understand phenomena based on empirical evidence.

Rigorous methodology: Research uses well-established methods and techniques to collect and analyze data, including quantitative and qualitative research methods.

Replicability: Research aims to produce findings that can be replicated by other researchers to confirm the validity of the results.

Logical reasoning: Research involves the use of logical reasoning and critical thinking to draw conclusions based on the data collected.

Generalizability: Research aims to produce findings that are applicable to a larger population beyond the scope of the study.

The significance of the research lies in its ability to provide knowledge and understanding that can be used to solve real-world problems, inform policy decisions, and advance our understanding of the world around us. Research helps to identify gaps in knowledge and understanding, generate new ideas, and challenge existing theories. It also plays a crucial role in advancing the frontiers of knowledge and driving innovation in various fields, including science, technology, and medicine.

2. Describe the process of research with the help of various steps involved in it.

The process of research involves a series of steps that are designed to ensure that the research is systematic, valid, and reliable. The following are the steps involved in the research process:

Identify the research problem: The first step in the research process is to identify the research problem or question. The researcher needs to define the scope of the research, determine the research objectives, and identify the variables that will be studied.

Review of literature: The next step is to conduct a thorough review of the literature related to the research topic. This involves examining relevant articles, books, and other resources to identify gaps in knowledge and gain an understanding of what is already known about the topic.

Develop a research hypothesis: Based on the literature review, the researcher should develop a research hypothesis, which is a tentative explanation for the research problem.

Determine the research design: The researcher needs to determine the appropriate research design based on the research question and the type of data to be collected. The research design can be either quantitative, qualitative, or mixed.

Collect data: Once the research design is established, the next step is to collect data. Data can be collected through various methods, including surveys, interviews, observations, or experiments.

Analyze data: After collecting the data, the researcher needs to analyze it to identify patterns, relationships, and trends. This involves using statistical software, content analysis, or other techniques to analyze the data.

Interpret findings: Once the data is analyzed, the researcher needs to interpret the findings. This involves drawing conclusions based on the data and comparing them to the research hypothesis.

Communicate findings: The final step in the research process is to communicate the findings. The researcher should present the results in a clear and concise manner through various means, such as research papers, presentations, or reports.

In conclusion, the research process involves a systematic and methodical approach to acquiring knowledge and understanding of a particular topic or problem. The researcher needs to follow a structured process that involves several steps to ensure that the research is valid, reliable, and contributes to the existing body of knowledge.

3. What is sampling? discuss various types of sampling.

Sampling is the process of selecting a subset of individuals or items from a larger population to study and draw conclusions about the population. Sampling is an important aspect of research as it is often not feasible or practical to study an entire population, and a sample can provide accurate estimates of the population characteristics.

There are several types of sampling methods, including:

1. Probability Sampling: Probability sampling is a type of sampling method where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Probability sampling methods include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling.

  • Simple random sampling: In this method, a sample is selected randomly from the population, where each individual has an equal chance of being selected.

  • Systematic sampling: In this method, a sample is selected by selecting every kth element in the population after randomly selecting the first element.

  • Stratified sampling: In this method, the population is divided into subgroups or strata, and a sample is selected from each stratum proportionate to the size of the stratum in the population.

  • Cluster sampling: In this method, the population is divided into clusters or groups, and a sample is selected from each cluster.

2. Non-Probability Sampling: Non-probability sampling is a type of sampling method where the sample is selected based on subjective or non-random methods. Non-probability sampling methods include convenience sampling, snowball sampling, quota sampling, and purposive sampling.

  • Convenience sampling: In this method, the sample is selected based on the ease of accessibility and proximity to the researcher.

  • Snowball sampling: In this method, the initial participants are selected based on a specific criterion, and additional participants are recruited through referrals from the initial participants.

  • Quota sampling: In this method, the sample is selected based on a predetermined quota for certain characteristics, such as age, gender, or race.

  • Purposive sampling: In this method, the sample is selected based on a specific purpose or objective of the study, such as selecting experts in a particular field or individuals with a specific trait.

In conclusion, sampling is an important aspect of research, and the selection of an appropriate sampling method depends on the research question, population characteristics, and available resources. Probability sampling methods provide more accurate estimates of the population characteristics, while non-probability sampling methods are often more convenient and cost-effective.

Short question

1. Define qualitative research

Qualitative research is a method that explores subjective experiences and perspectives using non-numerical data, such as words and images. It is used in social sciences and involves methods like interviews, observation, and document analysis.

2. What is meant by basic research

Basic research aims to increase understanding of a topic without immediate practical application. It's driven by curiosity and often involves testing theories and generating hypotheses. It's commonly conducted in fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics.

3. Distinguishing between laboratory experiments and field experiments

Lab experiments are controlled and done in a lab with selected participants while field experiments are done in real-world settings with diverse participants. Lab experiments are more controlled while field experiments have more external validity. Lab experiments are used in natural and physical sciences, while field experiments are used in social sciences and psychology.

4. What is a research hypothesis

A research hypothesis is a testable assumption about the expected outcome of a research study. It predicts a relationship or difference between variables based on existing literature, observations or prior research. The hypothesis guides the research design and analysis and is tested through data collection and analysis to support or reject it.

5. What are the points to remember while framing a questionnaire

Points to remember while framing a questionnaire include identifying the purpose, keeping it concise, avoiding leading and ambiguous questions, using neutral language, appropriate response scales, pilot testing, considering ethical issues, and tailoring the questionnaire to the target audience.

6. Define population and sample in a statistical inquiry

The population is the complete set of individuals or objects of interest, while a sample is a representative subset of the population used to generalize the findings to the whole population.

7. Distinguish between concept and construct

A concept is a general idea, while a construct is a specific concept that has been defined by a researcher for a particular purpose and can be measured through observation or tests.

8. Distinguish between research design and research method

Research design is the overall plan or strategy for conducting a study, while research method refers to the specific techniques or procedures used to collect and analyze data.

9. Mention different types of sampling

Different types of sampling methods in research include random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, snowball sampling, purposive sampling, and systematic sampling.

10. What do you mean by null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis

The null hypothesis suggests that there is no significant difference between two populations or variables, while the alternative hypothesis suggests that there is a significant difference.

11. What steps are involved in the marketing research process

The marketing research process involves defining the research problem and objectives, developing a research plan, collecting data through primary and secondary research, analyzing and interpreting the data, presenting the findings, and taking action based on the results.

12. What is meant by the research process

The research process refers to a systematic series of steps taken to conduct research, which typically involves defining a research problem, developing a research plan, collecting and analyzing data, and presenting the findings.

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